cell structure and function

Cell Structure And Function

The cell is the most important thing for living organisms. It is the fundamental thing that a living organism gets made of. If cells never were ever-present, there would have been no living organisms on this planet.

Today, we are going to know and learn about the Importance of cells. And al how is it structured, and what are its functions are. So let’s first learn what cells are.

What are Cells?

It is true when we say that the human body itself has trillions of cells. These cells also keep dividing every moment. Everything that happens in our body happens thanks to the cells whether it’s providing structure to our body or providing energy to us.

The count of cells differs from organism to organism, but the basic function remains the same. That function is the growth and development of the organisms.

Cells are very complex. Each component of the cell has its function. These functions together result in the growth and development of the organisms.

What’s interesting to know is cells have been there since life began on earth. But the discovery of cells happened in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Yet it was Robert Brown, who was a Scottish Botanist who gave important information. He provided insights into what the cell structures are and what the components are.

Types of Cells

Now the cells are not in one type. Two types of cells get defined based on their structure and functions. The two types of cells are:

Eukaryotic cells

All living organisms have Eukaryotic cells as the building blocks of their body. These cells are what all living beings get made of. The categories that have Eukaryotic cells are Mammals, Animals, Plants, Fungi, and Protozoans.

These cells further reproduce sexual as well as asexual cells. The size of the cells differs from organism to organism. What’s interesting is that components of plant cells are different from animal cells.

Prokaryotic Cells

The difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic is that Prokaryotic doesn’t have a nucleus. They belong to micro-organisms that are single-celled only. It is present in micro-organisms like bacteria, archaea, etc.

The basic form of reproduction in a Prokaryotic cell is binary fission, which is a form of asexual reproduction.

Now that we know what a cell is, and what types it has. Let us look at the structure of the cell.

Structure Of The Cell

Cell Structure

The cells are in such a structure that all parts do their functions without any glitches. All the components are unique in nature, and so are their functions. Below we are going to list the what are the different cell structures and their functions.

Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is an outer layer of cells. It is present in every cell that has ever gets reproduced. It is porous in nature that lets it carry out its functions. The main function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell. The other function of the cell membrane is to help move molecules in and out of the cell.

It acts as a barrier between two cells and also between cells and the outer surroundings of the cell.

Cell Wall

Made of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectic, the cell wall is an important part of the cell. The cell wall is only present in the plant cells. The outermost layer of the plant cells is the cell wall.


The cytoplasm is a gel-like thing inside the cell. This gel-like thing is a thick fluid. The cytoplasm is where the chemical reaction takes place in the cell.


The nucleus is a very important part of the cell. It is where the DNA is present. The nucleus is a prominent part as the nucleus is what directs the functions of the cells. The nucleus sends out signals to the cells to help stimulate growth and development.

Cell Organelles

Everything except the Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, and nucleus are Cell Organelles. Cell organelles include various other components that perform vital functions inside cells. Cell organelles included components like:

  • Nucleolus
  • Nuclear Membrane
  • Chromosomes
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • The Golgi Apparatus
  • Chloroplast
  • Vacuoles
  • Vesicles
  • Ribosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosomes

Functions of the Cell

Facilitates Mitosis

One of the important works of the cell is cell division. When the cell divides is when the body grows and develops. Mitosis is an important process where a single cell gets divided into daughter cells. These cells keep multiplying, and hence the organism grows and develops.

Production Of Energy

To help the organism grow and develop, it’s important for the cells .to have energy. This energy gets produced within the cell itself.


Cells reproduce when they divide. There are two processes of cell division is Mitosis and Meiosis.


Cells import different nutrients.  These nutrients are important for the day-to-day functions of the cell. Also, the waste gets transported out of the cell.

Final Thoughts

That’s all about the most important thing for living organisms. Cells are what humans, plants, and animals get made of.

Thanks for reading. Hope it helps.

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